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My Dedoco intership experience - Paul Schwinn

Name: Paul Schwinn

Course/University: Computer Science, University of Applied Science Cologne

Period of Internship: 17 October 2022 to 16 January 2023

Internship function: Programming Intern

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My Dedoco internship

“I was excited, when I received the confirmation email that I could start my internship in October. I have been active in the crypto space for some time now and was really curious to see how blockchain is being used in business use-cases beside the crypto part."

What I really enjoyed while doing my internship

“What I liked about my internship experience was the team spirit I witnessed at Dedoco. As an intern I felt like being part of the team. I felt like my work was valued across the team and useful compared to other tasks that just feel boring and unnecessary. I really enjoyed seeing the parts I've researched being used and valued.”

Challenges which I encountered during my internship

“The more challenging parts would be the research part and the testing of the code base. The blockchain space is still very experimental when it comes to the programming part and the documentation of some steps could still need some help. 

Sometimes it was very frustrating testing some features using the documentation and then the code was not running as it was supposed to because the documentation was outdated.”

What I learnt from my internship

“I have learnt more about programming, in both the actual programming part but also the non-programming part such as using git. Using git helped me a lot and by the end of the internship I was able to use git to solve problems with my code.”

My advice for internship:

#1: Ask for help if you are really stuck on a problem.

#2: Write down the steps so you can resolve the problem by yourself the next time you encounter it.

#3: Always show that you are interested and want to learn more. 

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What is a wet signature?

Signing documents is a primary process of creating legally binding contracts. While the definition of a legally binding contract remained the same, signing a contract has evolved. In fact, the past decade has seen many of us moving from wet ink signatures to digital or electronic signatures as critical document standards. In this article, we will understand the meaning of a wet signature and whether these are better to use in the current technological era. 

What is a wet signature?

A "wet ink signature" refers to anyone placing a distinct mark or physical signature on a hard copy document. The process involves using a seal or pen to make a binding contract.

A wet signature is a handwritten approval mark. Anyone signing a hard copy of any document directly applies wet ink signatures. Typically, these signatures contain the signer name’s stylized cursive form. Wet ink signatures don’t necessarily need to contain the signer's name. In fact, it can be anything: a symbol, a trading name, or a word mark. 

Even though electronic and digital signatures have evolved the way we used to sign documents at present, wet ink signatures are still necessary for certain documents in government offices. These documents more often include a sworn statement, affidavit, or will in which Notary Public needs a person's identity verification.

On the other hand, certain business processes also require wet ink signatures for document execution. These more often include mortgage agreements, commercial leases, and promissory agreements. 

How is a wet signature different from a digital and electronic signature?

Most people don't know the difference between wet, digital, and electronic signatures. Before knowing which of these is best for you, it is important to know the difference between them

Historically, wet signatures have been used to prevent fraud; it is used to represent a binding contract. As technology evolves, digital and electronic signatures have started to carry the same legal effect and weight as handwritten wet signatures, especially in the business world.

Most importantly, electronic or digital signatures can help you save time and money while being much more secure than traditional wet signatures. 

Fortunately, various regions recognize electronic and digital signatures as legal. Due to their added benefits and convenience, these are now accepted in global and national commerce. 

Pros and Cons of wet signature: 

Wet ink signatures also come up with pros and cons: 

Pros of a wet signature 

1. Branding and Personality 

Wet signatures are powerful when it comes to branding purposes. These signatures are the best option for signing autographs; they can add warmth by imprinting personalities. 

2. Social and psychological effects 

While digital and electronic signatures are faster, wet ink signatures require a signer to be physically present, especially with other signees. This practice can help the signer and signees to develop a long-lasting business impact. Moreover, you can also use this particular event for social and marketing purposes.

Cons of a wet signature 

1. Forgeries 

Forgeries are way easier with wet ink signatures. While uniqueness is the only thing that can keep any wet signature safe at the end of the day. Unfortunately, even the most unique and difficult signature can be done by a forgery expert.

On the other hand, digital and electronic signatures are less vulnerable to forgery. The statement is true when you utilize dedicated contracting solutions to secure digital signatures. 

Security is arguably the key concern in wet ink signatures. Any physical document left around for a while can get into the wrong person's hands. In addition, without appropriate document protection, these signatures also pose a higher risk of being tempered, forged, or copied without your knowledge. 

2. Slower process 

Unlike digital or electronic signatures, it takes a longer period of time to process a paper-based document with wet ink signatures.

The process can also be tedious for both signers and signees as it involves various repetitive tasks. It also affects the accuracy of documents due to the increased possibility of human error risk. 

3. Costly process 

Creating and maintaining wet signatures on paper documents can be costly for businesses. Many businesses spend about 5% of their budgets filing paper documents for wet ink signatures. Besides that, businesses also spend an additional amount on managing these documents safely for later use. So, the overall process of wet signatures can add a significant cost to a business. 


We usually manage multiple documents that require signatures in our lives. The world is becoming more digital; thus, businesses have also evolved their way of signing a document. Many businesses have now opted for digital signatures for their added benefits. Digital signatures are completely legally binding and easy to use. However, it would help if you choose the safest tools to sign a document digitally. 

Fortunately, tools like dSign can provide a smarter and safer way to sign a document. With dSign, you can sign and certify your important documents safely from any device. Most importantly, the tool provides advanced verification and encryption to protect your signature.

A wet signature refers to a physical signature made with ink on paper, as opposed to an electronic signature. Learn more about the meaning of wet signatures.


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The Difference between E-Signatures and Digital Signatures


Electronic signatures (e-signatures) and digital signatures are gaining traction as the world is moving closer to digitalization. There is a significant difference between them, and both terms are often utilized interchangeably, which may create confusion.

Generally, e-signatures and digital signatures enable the electronic signing of documents, but they operate differently when it comes to legality, security, and implementation. E-signatures are used for digital contracts, agreements, and forms. This type of signature can be made by simply typing one's name into a document field or using a stylus or finger on a touchscreen device. No doubt, electronic signatures are easy and secure for everyday use.

However, digital signatures are an improved form of electronic signature that provides encryption-based technology to verify the signer's identity and enhance the security and authenticity of the signed document. To authenticate the signer's identity and bind the signature to the document, digital signatures require a unique digital certificate issued by an impartial third party. As a result, digital signatures are more difficult to forge than e-signatures and offer more excellent legal protection.

If your company intends to sign documents electronically while still complying with applicable laws and protecting sensitive data, you must clearly understand the difference between electronic signature vs digital signature. 

What is a Digital Signature?

A digital signature is an electronic fingerprint that can verify the origin of a digitally transmitted message or document. It is created with the help of cryptographic algorithms, which makes it difficult to forge or alter the signature.

The main features of a digital signature, include:

  • Authentication

Digital signatures authenticate the document or message's author and verify the signer’s identity. The signature can be checked with a public key infrastructure (PKI) or another digital signature verification tool to ensure authenticity.

  • Integrity

This type of signature ensures the integrity of the message or document that is not tampered with after its initial transmission. It is undoubtedly considered void if the document is altered in any way.

  • Non-repudiation

 As the signer cannot deny signing the document or message, non-repudiation is a crucial feature of digital signatures. This is because a public key infrastructure can accurately verify the authenticity of the signer's unique signature.

  • Effectiveness

There is no need for physical or paper-based documentation because digital signatures are easily generated and verified.

  • Legality

Digital signatures are legally binding and recognized in many countries, making them a trusted and widely accepted method of signing and authenticating digital documents.

What is an Electronic Signature?

The electronic signature is used to verify the signer's identity on digital documents and is considered an excellent replacement for a handwritten signature. It is a widely accepted signature because it is legally binding with electronic documents. There are plenty of benefits of using the electronic signature that makes this signature more convenient and trustworthy than a traditional signature.

The key features of an electronic signature include:

  • Authenticity

With the help of an electronic signature, the signer's identity can be verified in several ways, including passwords, biometric authentication, and digital certificates. These methods enable signature authentication that reduces the chances of it being forged.

  • Non-repudiation

The signer cannot claim they never signed the document by using an electronic signature. This can be accomplished accomplish with the help of digital certificates, which serve as a form of personal identification for each signer.

  • Security

Electronic signatures provide security and protection for the signer and the document's authenticity. This can be achieved using the encryption technique, making it impossible for unauthorized access.

  • Convenience

Electronic signatures are simple to use, which makes them very appealing. You can sign this type of signature by sitting anywhere or any place, but you need to access an internet connection. Because of this, most companies find these signatures very useful for online business and other forms of telecommuting.

Electronic Signature Vs Digital Signature

Signing electronic documents can be accomplished in a few ways, the most common of which are electronic and digital signatures. While both have a significant signature difference that can confirm the integrity of a digital file, they take different approaches and provide varying degrees of protection.

Electronic signature Vs digital signature.

Electronic signatures have different categories, including typed signatures, scanned signatures, and even a simple click on an "I Agree" button, which is used to sign electronic documents. Generally, a document can be considered as a “sign electronically,” if the signer's identity is verified and the indication of signer's intent.

Digital signatures are more secure than electronic signatures.

Digital signatures, by contrast, use cryptography to produce a unique digital fingerprint of the signed document. After this digital fingerprint is added to the document, the signature can no longer be revoked, even if the original document is altered. Contracts, agreements, and financial transactions are typical examples of legally binding documents that frequently utilize digital signatures because of the added security they provide over electronic signatures. 

Moreover, digital signatures are considered authentic if the signer has a digital certification by a prominent certificate authority (CA) that can verify the signer's identity. This also ensures the signature's authenticity and non-repudiation.

In short, companies can employ both signatures to sign the documents digitally. But both signatures offer different levels of security features. For example, digital signatures provide a higher level of security and consider a preferred method for legally binding agreements. On the other hand, electronic signatures are widely accepted and used for informal agreements that do not offer high security.


The choice between a digital and an electronic signature platform depends on the security and authentication required for the document. If you're looking for a next-generation decentralized platform for the digital signing of legal contracts, financial transactions, or sensitive documents, then our dSign tool is a preferred choice because it provides a high level of security, robust authentication, various signing options, and more.

Alternatively,  electronic signatures can be a suitable option for informal agreements and documents that do not need to be certified, making implementation simpler.

Therefore, when selecting between electronic and digital signatures, companies should consider the needs of the business and the nature of the documents. Both approaches have pros and cons, making a final choice should be based on a careful evaluation of needs and potential consequences.

E-Signatures and Digital Signatures - What is the difference between E-Signatures and Digital Signatures? How are they different?


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Guide: How to sign a contract online?


Online contract signing is significant for every business that requires an efficient way to organise contracts. There are some traditional methods to sign a contract, such as printing out documents, signing them, scanning them, and sending them through email, which is complicated and time-consuming. Fortunately, signing a legally binding contract has become a norm in today's digital world, and you can do it in minutes. All it takes are a few clicks, no matter where you live and at any time of the day.

Signing a contract online can be challenging for unfamiliar people. Whether you’re a business owner or an entrepreneur, this guide walks you through our online digital signing platform that can help you sign documents easily.

Why sign a contract online? 

The practice of digitally signing legal documents has gained popularity in recent years for several compelling reasons. Firstly, it's especially convenient. Because using a digital signature service for signing legal documents will eliminate the need to print, sign, and return paper copies via postal service, fax, or email. As a result, contracts can be signed easily, saving time, money, and energy for both parties.

Secondly, you do not need to worry about the security of signing a contract online. Encryption and two-factor authentication are two of the advanced security features of various popular platforms. Because of this, sensitive information is protected, and the possibility of fraud is minimized.

Thirdly, signing a digital contract is environment-friendly. By eliminating the resources such as paper, ink, and shipping, online contract signing minimises waste and conserves natural resources.

Lastly, signing a contract online also facilitates team collaboration and communication. In this way, both parties can sign contracts, share files digitally, and work together in real-time, speeding up the process of getting on the same page and finishing projects.

In short, digital signatures have many benefits, including reducing paperwork, improving safety, minimising environmental impact, and encouraging better teamwork and communication. 

How To Sign Contracts Online?

Follow the step-by-step process for online contract signing with Dedoco:

Step 1:
You can register for a free trial with our digital signing platform.

Step 2: Upload the contract from your computer or file-sharing platforms like Google Drive or Dropbox)

Step 3: Add the name and email address of the signing recipient. You can also add a contract observer for the signing process.

Step 4: Drop in the signature tags in the location where the recipient is required to sign

Step 5: Once all signers have signed the document, it will be automatically finalized and stored securely in your Dedoco account. You can then download a copy of the signed document or share it with others via email.


  1. Are digitally signed contracts legally binding documents? 

Yes, contracts that are signed digitally are legally binding. Digital signatures are legal in most countries, including the United States and countries that are part of the European Union. They have the same legal effect as traditional signatures on paper documents. Digital signature technology checks the signer's identity and uses encryption and other security measures to ensure the document hasn't been changed.

  1. Do recipients of the contract require a Dedoco account? 

Recipients of the contract do not need to sign up for a Dedoco account to sign a contract. Documents will be sent via email, and they can review and complete the signing process without creating an account.


Online contract signing continues to evolve and has become the future of business since it is easy, safe, and legally binding for companies of all sizes. Fortunately, there are many digital contract signing services to choose from. Dedoco is one of the best platforms because of its security and efficiency, which lets you sign, monitor, and keep track of contracts online. With us, you can ensure your contracts are secure due to industry-leading encryption and authentication methods. Also, the platform provides several convenient features that speed up the signing process and increase efficiency.

With Dedoco, you can sign contracts electronically from anywhere in the world. No matter the size of your business, we offer a flexible and reliable solution that can streamline and improve your contract management procedures, resulting in significant time and money savings.

Signing a contract online can be a convenient way to finalize business agreements. Learn about the different types of digital signatures.


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What Are the 5 Types of Signatures?

What is a Signature?

A signature is a unique personal mark representing a person's identity and confirming their approval or authorization of a document or message.  In other words, it is a visual representation of a person's name or other identifying information used to signify their agreement, endorsement, or authentication.  Signatures have been used for centuries in various contexts, including legal, financial, and personal communications.

In this digital world, signatures have evolved to include electronic signatures, which can be created using a digital pen or other input device and can be used to sign documents electronically.  Undoubtedly, signatures are vital in ensuring the authenticity and integrity of documents, contracts, and agreements, and they are often legally binding.  There are different signature types, and this guide will explain the 5 types of signatures.  Types of Signature

There are different signature types, each with its unique characteristics and purposes.  Some of the most common types of a signature include:

1. Written or Wet Signature

Written signatures, also known as wet signatures, are one of the most traditional and commonly used types of signatures.  A written signature involves physically signing a document or agreement using a pen or other writing instrument.  This type of signature can be used on paper documents, such as contracts, legal agreements, and financial documents, and is typically required in formal or legal contexts.

To create a written signature, a person must physically write their name or sign their initials on the document in question.  Generally, the signature is often accompanied by the date and other identifying information, such as a job title or company name.  Once the document is signed, it is legally binding, and any changes or alterations may invalidate the signature.

2. Electronic Signature or E-signature

Electronic signature or e-signature refers to any signature created using electronic means rather than a traditional handwritten signature.  Fortunately, e-signatures are becoming increasingly popular in today's digital age, where many documents and transactions are online.

In addition, e-signatures are becoming widely accepted as a legally binding form of signature.  However, it is important to ensure that the e-signature meets the legal requirements in your jurisdiction before using it in a legally binding document or transaction.

3. Digital Signature

A digital signature is a type of signature that uses cryptographic techniques to verify the authenticity and integrity of a digital document or message.  A mathematical algorithm generates a unique identifier for the document or message, which can be used to verify its origin.

Generally, digital signatures are used in various applications, including email, online transactions, and electronic documents.  They offer several advantages over traditional signatures, such as being more secure, efficient, and easily verifiable.

4. Symbols and Marks

Some individuals choose to sign their names with symbols or marks instead of using traditional handwriting.  This type of signature can be a creative and unique way to authenticate a document or artwork.  Generally, symbols and marks can include anything from a simple circle or triangle to a more complex design representing the signer's personality or brand.  Many artists and graphic designers use their unique mark as a signature to identify their work.

This type of signature can also be used to protect against forgeries.  A signature with a unique symbol or mark can be difficult to replicate, making it easier to detect a fraudulent signature.  However, it is important to note that symbols and marks as a signature may not be accepted in all situations.  Some legal documents and contracts require a traditional handwritten signature.  Therefore, checking the guidelines for signing documents before using a symbol or mark is important.

5. Clickwrap Signature

A clickwrap signature is a type of electronic signature widely used in online transactions.  In a clickwrap agreement, the user must click on an "I Agree" button or a similar button to signify their consent to the terms and conditions of the agreement.

Undoubtedly, the clickwrap signature is one of the most popular forms of electronic signature because it is quick and easy to use.  With just a few clicks, users can agree to the terms of an agreement without having to read through lengthy legal documents.


In short, digital signatures provide a convenient and secure way to sign documents without the need for complex setups or data sharing. Various tools and platforms make it easy to adapt and utilize digital signatures for securely signing documents from a desktop or device. Dedoco is one of them and offers a fast, efficient, and secure way to sign documents

Understanding the different signature types is important because it can help individuals comprehend the legal implications of each type of signature.


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Why should I use blockchain

You're probably like me. You were at a dinner with friends and someone asked you about blockchain and what's the purpose of it. You just blanked completely and spouted off some nonsense about value ownership and walled gardens and the Federal Reserve. By the time you were done, noone ever respected your opinion again.

Wait, this didn't happen to you?

Well... it could! There's so much hype around blockchain and often not a lot of clear explanation about what makes it a foundational technology in the next phase of internet. Which is why we want to provide a thorough explanation of the value of blockchains, beyond cryptocurrency.

What do I get out of a blockchain that I don't get from a database? Why is this important?Let's dive in.

Blockchains provide a durable source of truth

Data on the blockchain is a public record that is tamper-proof and will be around as long as the blockchain network is still running.

To understand this, we need to understand what a blockchain is.

A blockchain network, also called a distributed ledger, is a network of computers that are constantly figuring out how to agree on the state of the world. This state is the "truth" we're talking about. It could be a list of account balances for example. Under the hood, the blockchain network is negotiating agreement on a particular data structure. This data structure is a blockchain.

The blockchain is a (gasp) chain of blocks. Each block is an ordered collection of transactions that modify the state of the world in some way. For example, a transaction could move Bitcoin from account A to account B, thus modifying account balances.

The negotiation procedure is called a consensus mechanism. When you write a transaction, you talk to a single computer on the network. It then needs to broadcast this transaction to the rest of the network. The network needs to decide on which of these transactions to include. Whatever mechanism gets used (proof of work and proof of stake being two examples,) a single computer is given the power to decide what transactions are included in the next block.

Once this is decided, the block is written to the blockchain. Each block is cryptographically secured by a hash that not only includes the data in the current block, but also the hash of the previous block.

This means that the older a transaction is, the more difficult it will be to change that data. You not only need to modify the block that the transaction happened on, but EVERY subsequent block after that.

So your data ages like wine. The older it becomes, the more durable and secure it is.This is in stark contrast to a database, where there is a central authority that can make arbitrary changes to the data no matter how old it is.

How to store permanent data when organizations are not permanent

There are times when two parties that don't quite trust each other need to coordinate on something. For example, a landlord and a tenant need to coordinate on a rental agreement. Or a carrier and shippers need to coordinate on a bill of lading.The web2 solution to this problem is to use a third party to coordinate. Docusign, for example, is a company that is this third party. As a landlord, I'll create a Docusign document for my tenant to sign. All this is stored on Docusign. This is far preferable to the non-digital case, where we create two easily falsifiable carbon copies of the agreement, but this still depends on the integrity of Docusign as an organization.If Docusign goes bankrupt, what happens to my data? If Docusign has a security breach, can I trust my data? Organizational entropy is a fact of life. Nothing is permanent

This was the reason why we built Dedoco. Large enterprises wanted to have control of their actual documents, but they wanted a third party as an intermediary to coordinate and store just the signatures. The insight here is to segregate the data into what that needs to be durable and what doesn't.The blockchain serves as the shared truth backbone that stores the data that needs to be durable.

The goal is that any one party is able to prove something (like a signature) with a combination of their private information and the shared information on the blockchain.For example, if I have a document pdf, and the hash of the document pdf on the blockchain, I can verify that this document was registered at a particular time on the blockchain.

Trust Engine

This is why we're building the Trust Engine, an API for data-focused blockchain applications. We're focused on easing the challenges of interacting with the blockchain.Stay tuned for more blog posts.


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3 Signs Your Business Should Implement E Signatures

Electronic Signatures have changed the way businesses operate in recent years. Paperless solutions and end-to-end digital workflows are increasing in popularity, and for good reason. Wet-ink signatures carry with them several disadvantages and organisations are taking notice of the potential benefits of switching over to e-signatures.

Signing paper documents is more tedious, time consuming, unsafe and costly. It requires the physical presence of the signer which results in commuting time or courier expenses. Printing out documents for all the parties involved in a transaction also adds to overheads while also presenting a security risk if your company deals with sensitive information. Manually keeping track of document versions and determining the master document increases vulnerability to human error and may negatively impact a business.

However, despite the drawbacks of physical signatures, there can be some hesitation when deciding to make the switch away from wet-ink signatures. To help you make the decision, here are some signs your business should consider implementing e-signatures.

1. Your Business Handles Sensitive and Confidential Information

Sensitive information such as financial information and medical records are at risk of being stolen and/or misused if you rely solely on paper document signing. Businesses in high-trust sectors like government, financial services and healthcare, should consider switching to e-signatures, or more secure digital signatures, to safeguard their signed documents while increasing productivity.

Built-in document residency features, can ensure that sensitive information can only be accessed by authorised personnel. Other features like tamper-proof document integrity, identity verification, and encryption add layers of security to the signing process and overall makes it safer and more convenient for transactional approval. Another important capability is the generation of immutable and comprehensive audit trails that track and record every step of the process for liability reasons and regulatory compliance.

Learn More: How Different Industries Benefit From Using Digital Signatures

2. Manual Processes Hinder Your Workplace Productivity

Cutting down on printing costs and miscellaneous expenses are some of the immediate benefits of switching over to e-signing. By digitising your contracts and signing workflow, this reduces inefficiencies and increases workplace productivity as you no longer have to go through multiple rounds of revision, exponentially increasing the amount of paper being printed and costs and man hours involved.

Electronic signatures means documents can be viewed, tracked and shared with authorised personnel without using a single sheet of paper. Document tracking is made simple as all parties involved in the signing process - whether as a signer, observer or approver are always kept updated with the status of the document. Features like versioning history also ensures signers are looking at the correct document making the process more transparent and less confusing for all involved. Moreover, users can instantly verify documents and retrieve complete document history to support audits.

Learn more: Dedoco helps a government agency in Singapore complete signing within a day

3. Demand For Better Customer Experience and Convenience

From signing corporate to personal agreements, numerous transactions are increasingly taking place online as consumers become more accustomed to digital experiences. Younger generations have fully embraced the technological revolution and may turn away from businesses that do not have or adopt e-signing capabilities.

For many industries, the writing is already on the wall. Electronic signing is accelerating in adoption and it’s only a matter of time before it becomes the accepted business practice for most organisations.

Future-proof your business today and switch to e-signing with the Dedoco App Suite. Decentralised, scalable, and tamper-proof, the next-generation of document solutions can ease the transition into fully-digital workflows for your entire organisation. Contact us today and find out how Dedoco can transform your business.

Electronic signatures are rapidly gaining adoption as more businesses are starting to realise the benefits of fully-digital workflows.


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